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[大学生论坛]:激励医学教师:探究激励在影响动机中的作用

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clt 发表于 2019-1-4 12:03:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



Acad Med. 2018 Nov;93(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 57th Annual Research in Medical Education Sessions):S52-S59. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002383.
Incentivizing Medical Teachers: Exploring the Role of Incentives in Influencing Motivations.
激励医学教师:探究激励在影响动机中的作用
[url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Wisener%20KM[Author]&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=30365430]Wisener KM[/url]1, [url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Eva%20KW[Author]&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=30365430]Eva KW[/url].
AbstractPURPOSE:
Medical education is dependent on clinicians and other faculty who volunteer time and expertise to teaching. Unfortunately, the literature reports increasing levels of dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition. Incentivization provides an obvious intervention, but rewards must be implemented judiciously or risk unintended consequences. With little known about the effects of incentives in medical education, the authors investigate key insights across three disciplines to explain how, why, and when incentives can be used effectively.
目的:
医学教育依赖于临床医生和其他教师的自愿时间和专业知识来教学。不幸的是,文献报道了越来越多的不满、倦怠和磨耗。激励提供了一种明显的干预手段,但必须明智地实施奖励,否则可能产生意想不到的后果。由于对激励措施在医学教育中的作用知之甚少,作者调查了三个学科的关键见解,以解释如何、为什么以及何时可以有效地使用激励措施。
METHOD:
In this critical synthesis, a purposeful and iterative literature search was conducted by exploring a variety of databases to identify seminal articles, key concepts, and generative search terms. Particularly fruitful disciplines were then explored more deliberately.
方法:
在这一关键的综合中,通过探索各种数据库来识别开创性的文章、关键概念和生成性搜索词,进行了有目的的、迭代的文献搜索,尤其是更有成效的学科。
RESULTS:
Psychologists argue that the impact of an incentive depends on an individual's motivational drives. Organizational behaviorists draw attention to environmental incentives and disincentives that build or detract from motivation. Behavioral economists posit that size, type, and way in which an incentive is provided affect motivation differently.
结果:
心理学家认为,激励的影响取决于个人的动机。组织行为学家注意环境激励和环境抑制对激励的影响。行为经济学家假定,提供激励的规模、类型和方式对激励的影响是不同的。
CONCLUSIONS:
The influence of an incentive depends on how it interacts with underlying mechanisms deemed important for motivation. These mechanisms change across tasks, individuals, and contexts. Recommendations derived from the effort include being deliberate about (1) determining what is driving the individual to act, (2) considering the unique interactions between incentives and motivation types, and (3) considering barriers that may interfere with incentive effectiveness. In examining each of these, the authors argue that the field needs greater clarity regarding how, when, and why incentives operate within the many contexts in which medical educators work.
结论:
激励的影响取决于它如何与被认为对激励很重要的潜在机制相互作用。这些机制在任务、个人和上下文之间发生变化。从努力中得出的建议包括:(1)确定是什么驱使个体采取行动;(2)考虑激励和激励类型之间独特的相互作用;(3)考虑可能干扰激励有效性的障碍。在研究这些问题的过程中,作者认为该领域需要更清楚地了解激励机制在医学教育工作者工作的许多环境中如何、何时以及为何发挥作用。


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