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身体活动和肠道-大脑连接如何使我们更健康

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CharlieHui 发表于 2019-1-3 22:21:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
People talk a lot about the merits (or not) of the prehistoric hunting-and-gathering “Paleo diet”: the idea is that eating the way we had to eat over thousands, even millions, of years would be most conducive to salubrious lives. And it makes some sense that providing the right kind of fuel for our bodies is valuable. But regardless of the exact foods in our diet, as you will learn in our  story, it's far more important for us to be active to be healthy.

人们经常谈论史前狩猎和采集“古饮食”的优点(或不优点):这种观点认为,以我们数千年甚至数百万年的饮食方式吃饭最有益于健康的生活。为我们的身体提供合适的燃料是有价值的,这是有道理的。但是,不管我们饮食中的确切食物是什么,正如你将在我们的故事中了解到的那样,保持健康对我们来说更重要。

“Our taking fewer than 10,000 daily steps is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease,” writes Herman Pontzer of Duke University, author of the feature article “Evolved to Exercise.” Unfortunately, he adds, “U.S. adults typically clock about 5,000 steps, which contributes to the alarming rates of type 2 diabetes, affecting one in 10 Americans, and heart disease, which accounts for a quarter of all deaths in the U.S.”

杜克大学的Herman Pontzer(专题文章“进化到运动”的作者)写道:“我们每天不到10000步,这与心血管疾病和代谢疾病的风险增加有关。”不幸的是,他补充道:“美国成年人通常要走大约5000步,这导致了2型糖尿病的惊人发病率。”10个美国人中就有1个患有ETES,心脏病占美国死亡人数的四分之一。

In contrast, our ape cousins are relatively sedentary yet experience none of the health ailments that we would suffer at similarly low levels of activity. And although chimpanzees have naturally high levels of cholesterol, they do not develop humanlike heart disease. Even in captivity they stay lean and rarely develop diabetes. What's going on? Why are humans the “odd ape out,” as Pontzer calls us? Skip your fingers over to “Evolved to Exercise” to learn what research is revealing about our endlessly fascinating species.

“相比之下,我们的类人猿表亲相对久坐不动,但在同样低的活动水平下,它们不会遇到任何健康问题。”尽管黑猩猩天生胆固醇水平很高,但它们不会患上类似人类的心脏病。即使在圈养中,它们也保持苗条,很少患糖尿病。发生什么事?为什么人类会像庞泽所说的那样是“奇怪的类人猿”?跳过你的手指去“进化到运动”,去了解研究揭示了什么是我们无穷迷人的物种。

Whereas exercise has many positive effects on our well-being, Pontzer reminds us that weight loss unfortunately isn't really one of them. (He explained the reasons more fully in his feature “The Exercise Paradox” in the February 2017 issue.) Many of us struggle to avoid excess calories, even though we know we should be swapping in vegetables and fruit instead of reaching for those tempting bags of chips and cookies.

虽然运动对我们的健康有许多积极的影响,但庞茨提醒我们,不幸的是,减肥并不是真正的一种。(他在2017年2月出版的《运动悖论》中更全面地解释了原因。)我们中的许多人都在努力避免摄入过多的卡路里,尽管我们知道我们应该换蔬菜和水果,而不是买那些诱人的薯条和饼干袋。

Are we instead being sabotaged by the microbes that live in our own gut? Recent research in rodents and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgeries suggests that may be the case. These operations reduce the size of the stomach, and they have now been found to have additional effects; namely, they can change how the brain areas involved in communicating with the gut behave. In “Mind over Meal,” medical writer Bret Stetka discusses how these parts of the brain become hyperactive compared with their earlier activity. As a result, people may become satiated sooner, enabling new, beneficial eating habits. The story is ready to be consumed.

我们不是被生活在我们自己肠道的微生物破坏了吗?最近对啮齿动物和接受过减肥手术的病人的研究表明可能是这样。这些手术减小了胃的大小,现在已经发现它们有额外的作用;也就是说,它们可以改变与肠道沟通的大脑区域的行为方式。医学作家布雷特•斯特卡在《吃饭时的头脑》一书中讨论了大脑的这些部位与早期活动相比是如何变得过度活跃的。因此,人们可能会很快变得饱足,从而形成新的有益的饮食习惯。


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