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[大学生论坛]:心梗“女重男轻”的真相!

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Nicole 发表于 2017-12-31 22:14:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


[size=18.6667px]心梗“女重男轻”的真相!
[size=18.6667px]The Truth That AMI Prefers Female over Males
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[size=18.6667px][size=18.6667px]对于急性心肌梗死(AMI)来说也分男女,预后也各有不同,这是怎么回事呢?且听我细细道来。
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For acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is also divided into men and women, the prognosis is also different, how is this going on? And listen to me carefully.

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AMI属于冠心病中最常见的一种急危重症,也是致死、致残率最高的心血管疾病。

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AMI is the most common form of acute and critical illness in coronary heart disease, but also the most lethal and disabling cardiovascular disease.

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研究者们发现在AMI类型、预后等方面存在性别差异:女性首次AMI1年和5年的死亡率分别为26%和47%,明显高于男性(分别为19%和36%);对于<60岁的患者,男性急性冠脉综合征(ACS)的发生率是女性的3-4倍,但>75岁的患者,女性ACS发生率则明显超过男性。

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The researchers found that there were gender differences in AMI type, prognosis, etc. The first and fifth year AMI mortality rates for women were 26% and 47% respectively, significantly higher than those for men (19% and 36%, respectively); for <60 The incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in men is 3-4 times higher in women than in men, but the prevalence of ACS among women> 75 years of age is significantly higher than that of men.

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看到这里,姑娘们是不是要晕过去了?等等,知其然还要知其所以然,“死也要死个明白”,到底是什么原因导致女性这么悲催呢?

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See here, the girls are not to fainted? And so on, of course, but also know why they are, "death also want to know", in the end is what causes women so sad reminder?

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1.唉,运气不好,病情要比男性重

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1. Well, bad luck, the condition worse than men

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女性冠心病多表现为非ST段抬高型心肌梗死(NSTEMI)、非阻塞性冠状动脉疾病、自发性冠状动脉夹层或冠状动脉痉挛。

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Women with coronary heart disease mostly non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), non-obstructive coronary artery disease, spontaneous coronary artery disease or coronary artery spasm.

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斑块糜烂多见于年轻女性,可导致更多的冠脉闭塞的AMI;冠脉痉挛多见于老年女性,较男性患者年龄更大。自发性冠脉夹层多见于无冠状动脉粥样硬化危险因素的ACS年性女性。

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Plaque erosion more common in young women, can lead to more coronary occlusion AMI; coronary artery spasm more common in older women, older men than men. Spontaneous coronary dissection is more common in ACS-year-old women without risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.

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2.同样是吸烟,女性的风险增加7倍!

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2. The same is smoking, women's risk increased by 7 times!

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对女性而言,吸烟、高血压、血脂异常、肥胖、糖尿病、心理危险因素影响较男性更大,其中吸烟是女性发生心肌梗死的单一最重要的危险因素,可使<55岁女性AMI风险增加7倍。

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For women, smoking, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes and psychological risk factors have a greater impact than men. Smoking is the single most important risk factor for women with MI and increases the risk of AMI in women <55 years 7 times.

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此外,高血压病与女性发生AMI关系较男性更密切;总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白水平(LDL-C)升高与中年女性的心原性死亡关系更密切;肥胖使女性AMI 发生风险增加3倍;女性合并糖尿病发生冠脉事件风险高于男性;抑郁是女性心肌梗死或心原性死亡风险增加≥50%。

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In addition, there is a closer relationship between hypertension and AMI in women than in men; elevated total cholesterol and LDL-C are associated with more cardiac death in middle-aged women; and obesity increases the risk of AMI in women 3 times higher risk of coronary events in women with diabetes mellitus than in men. Depression is a 50% increase in the risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death in women.

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3.能怎么办?症状表现居然都延迟

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3. What can I do? Symptoms actually delayed

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AMI通常表现为心绞痛、胸闷等症状,但相当部分女性患者并未出现上述症状或较男性延迟出现,一些研究统计发现女性心肌梗死患者中无症状发生率高达30%。

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AMI usually presents as angina pectoris, chest tightness and other symptoms, but a considerable number of female patients did not appear above symptoms or delay than men, some studies found that women with myocardial infarction asymptomatic incidence of up to 30%.

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4.已哭晕!住院时间更长,死亡率更高……

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4. Has been crying halo! Hospitalization longer, higher mortality ...

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因女性患者AMI临床表现有时不典型或延迟出现,导致血运重建治疗(溶栓、介入、外科搭桥)可能出现延迟。此外,女性常合并高龄、糖尿病、高血压等其他合并症,导致此类患者即便血运重建治疗及时,较男性患者而言,住院时间更长,住院死亡率更高,出血及再梗死等并发症更多。

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Because of the clinical manifestations of AMI in women sometimes sometimes atypical or delayed, resulting in delayed revascularization (thrombolysis, intervention, surgical bypass) may occur. In addition, women are often associated with other complications such as age, diabetes and hypertension, resulting in longer hospital stay, higher hospitalization rates, bleeding and reinfarction, etc., even if revascularization is performed in a timely manner, compared with male patients More disease.

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就目前而言,虽然人们已经注意到女性和男性患者在AMI预后存在不同,但尚无指南对此进行特别建议,这也是导致女性心肌梗死患者预后较男性差的原因之一。

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For the time being, no guidelines have been specifically recommended for women and men with regard to the prognosis of AMI, which is one reason why women with MI have worse prognosis than men.

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综上,我们在临床工作中要注意在女性AMI的诊治上要更加细致,尽早明确诊断,严密观察出血及其他并发症出现的苗头,期待各大指南尽快提出女性心肌梗死诊治方案。

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In summary, we should pay attention to the clinical work in the diagnosis and treatment of female AMI to be more detailed, as soon as possible a clear diagnosis, closely observe the signs of bleeding and other complications, and look forward to major guidelines as soon as possible diagnosis and treatment program for women with myocardial infarction.

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原文来源:[size=18.6667px]http://circ.cmt.com.cn/detail/1329748.html

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