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[大学生论坛]:运动系统

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zyf950201 发表于 2017-12-31 15:27:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 zyf950201 于 2017-12-31 15:30 编辑

运动系统


HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE
造血组织

The musculoskeletal system is made up of bones,muscles, and joints.
肌肉骨骼系统由骨骼、肌肉以及关节组成。

The body contains 206 bones and more than 600 muscles.
身体包含206块骨骼,600多块肌肉。

Bones provide the framework around which the body is constructed and protect andsupport internal organs.
骨骼构建身体框架,支撑和保护内脏器官。

Bones also assist the body in movement because they are a point of attachment for muscles.
因骨骼与肌肉相连,骨骼也能协助肌肉产生运动。

The inner core of bones is composed of hematopoietic tissue ( red bone marrowmanufactures blood cells) ,
骨骼内部由造血组织组成(造血细胞的红骨髓),

whereas other parts of bone are storage areas for minerals necessary for growth, such ascalcium and phosphorus.
其它骨骼为存储区,存储大量骨骼生长所需矿物质,例如钙和磷等。

A joint is the place where two or more bones meet. This gives flexibility to the skeleton.
骨关节由两块或两块以上骨骼构成。促进骨骼灵活性。

Muscles, whether attached to bones or to internal organs and blood vessels, are responsiblefor movement.
无论是与骨骼,内脏器官还是与血管附着,肌肉的作用均为运动。

Internal movement involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are a part ofviscera, and external movement is accomplished by the contraction and relaxation of muscles thatare attached to the bones.
内部运动即脏腑肌肉的收缩和舒张,外部运动由附着于骨骼的肌肉的收缩和舒张来完成。
The skeleton, joints, and muscles work together to produce movement.
骨骼、关节和肌肉协调运作产生运动。

SECTION I BONE SYSTEMS FORMATION OF BONES
第一部分 骨骼系统 骨骼的形成

Bones are complete organs, chiefly composed of connective tissue called osseous tissue plusa rich supply of blood vessels and nerves.
骨骼是一块完整的器官,主要由结缔组织骨组织,大量血管神经组成。

Osseous tissue is a dense connective tissue that consists of osteocytes surrounded by a hard,intercellular substance filled with calcium salts.
骨组织是一种浓密的结缔组织,由大量骨细胞构成,骨细胞外环绕着坚硬的细胞间质,细胞间质中又含有大量钙盐沉寂。

During fetal development, the bones of the fetus are composed of cartilage tissue, which resembles osseous tissue but is more flexible and less dense because of a lack ofcalcium salts in its intercellular space.
在胎儿发育过程中,胎儿的骨骼是由软骨组织构成,它们类似于骨组织,但由于细胞间隙中缺乏钙盐而更柔韧疏松。

As the embryo develops, the process of depositing calcium salts in the soft, cartilaginousbones occurs and continues throughout the life of the individual after birth.
随着胚胎生长,软骨钙盐沉积形成,婴儿出生后,此过程仍将继续。

The gradual replacement of cartilage and its intercellular substance by immature bone cellsand calcium deposits is called ossification.
不成熟骨细胞逐渐代替软骨和细胞间质,软骨钙化过程也被称之为骨化。

Osteoblasts are the immature osteocytes that produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilageduring ossification.
成骨细胞为非成熟骨细胞,在钙化过程中,生成骨组织代替软骨。

In adult bones, the osteoblasts have matured into osteocytes.
对于成人骨骼,成骨细胞已形成骨细胞。

The formation of bone is dependent to a great extent on a proper supply of calcium andphosphorus to the bone tissue.
从很大程度上来讲,骨骼的形成主要依靠骨组织中钙与磷的数量。

These minerals must be taken into the body along with a sufficient amount of vitamin D.
除了需要被人体吸收的矿物质,还需充足的维他命D。

The human skeleton has two divisions:the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
人体骨骼由两部分组成:中轴骨骼和附肢骨骼。


2014级商务英语 张远峰 3141204012


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