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[英汉对照]:手术百年演变 见证生老病死

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admin 发表于 2016-10-2 15:15:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

The evolution of surgery over the last 100 years is horrifying and astounding
手术百年演变,真相叫人震惊

When you think about it, surgery is downright bizarre — humans cut into one another all the time to get rid of deadly diseases and excess body fat.
每每想到手术,你可能感觉相当诡异——为了治病或是为了去除多余的脂肪,一个人拿着刀剖开另一个人的身体。

But the fact we don't marvel about this on a daily basis shows how advanced surgery has become. Over the last 100 years or so, surgery has become a safe and reliable tool, not to mention a necessary component of public health.
但事实上我们并不总是惊讶于此,这说明如今的外科手术已经发展得有多么先进。在过去的大约一百年里,外科手术已经演变成了一个安全可靠的工具,更不用说它在维持公众健康方面起到的重要作用了。

Here's a taste of what that journey looked like.
我们将带您领略外科手术的发展过程。


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As early as 1906, doctors were performing fairly complex operations on patients. Rudimentary x-rays allowed unprecedented views inside the body, though no precautions were taken to avoid harmful exposure.
早在1906年, 医生就可以在病人身上进行相当复杂的手术。虽然当时还没有任何防范措施以避免照射X射线带来的伤害,但早期的X射线已经破天荒地使医生可以看到病人体内的状况。


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Other procedures around the time were less scientifically sound, such as the practice of regulating blood pressure with full-body suits as doctors administered infusions of medicine into the neck.
其他同时期的手术操作比较缺乏科学合理性,比如在往病人颈内输注药物时,医生会让病人身穿全身套装以调节血压。(小编:不知道病人当时作何感想……)


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That's not to say the rooms for these grisly operations weren't impressive. Take the Ellis Island Hospital's operating room, which, even in 1909, looked fairly modern.
当时进行这些可怖手术的手术室同样令人印象深刻。举个例子,1909年的埃利斯岛医院的手术室看起来就已经相当现代化了。


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The surgeries themselves, however, were often brutal. With a poor understanding of anesthesia and none of the delicate tools available today, operations were forceful and traumatic.
然而,当时的手术本身通常非常残忍。由于当时的医生不太了解麻醉,也没有现在精密的手术器械,当时的外科手术就较为暴力,令病人痛苦。


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During World War I, medical science saw tremendous innovation. Surgery became mobile as doctors in the field needed to operate on wounded soldiers.
第一次世界大战期间,医学有了巨大革新。战地医生需要为受伤的士兵做手术,外科手术也因此具有了移动性。


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By 1921, anesthesia was used during procedures like the tumor-removal surgery depicted below. But records indicate that roughly one in 10 patients died on the table.
到了1921年,人们已在外科手术中使用麻醉术,例如下图所示的肿瘤切除手术。但记录显示,10个病人当中约有1人死在手术台上。


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During the 20s, the equipment wasn't advanced enough for the intricate surgeries being performed. Physicians sometimes relied on rickety carts made of PVC pipes to support their operating tables.
20世纪20年代,设备还不够先进,难以满足复杂手术的需求。医生们有时甚至需要用聚氯乙烯管(PVC管)做成摇摇晃晃的手推车,来支撑他们的手术台。


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The 1920s saw an advent of surgery clinics. Whereas doctors initially operated with just one or two nurses to assist them, now physicians worked in teams.
20世纪20年代也出现了外科诊所。然而,不像现在一个医疗团队负责一台手术,当时的医生在进行手术时仅有一、两个护士从旁协助。


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The most iconic images from this time period depict sample procedures performed in lecture halls, before an audience of rising doctors.
当时最经典的场面便是:医生们在演讲厅进行范例手术演示,台下是一群新晋医生当观众。(小编:求病人的心理阴影面积……)


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But medical innovation still had its pitfalls: This Braun inhaler was used to administer ether and chloroform. However, though chloroform was praised for its quick-acting effects, it was phased out in the 1930s because of its toxicity.
但是医疗革新也有其自身的缺陷:当时人们将布劳恩吸入器用于乙醚和三氯甲烷的给药,虽然三氯甲烷因为见效快而备受称赞,但是因为它有毒性,30年代就逐渐被淘汰了。


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X-ray tubes were also common in the 1930s. Doctors enjoyed the ability to peer into people's bodies before needing to resort to surgery.
X射线管在20世纪30年代也被普遍使用。医生们能够在诉诸手术之前查看病人体内的状况。


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In the early 1940s, medical scientists learned to use localized x-rays and anesthesia on specific parts of the body. As a result, patients were treated to oral surgeries to relieve their stubborn tooth aches and pains.
20世纪40年代初,医学家们学会了在身体特定部位使用局部X射线和麻醉。因此,病人得以接受口腔手术以减缓顽固的牙痛。


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The decade also brought new interest in extreme procedures, namely, lobotomies. Doctors started specializing in the practice of alleviating ailments by removing certain brain tissues altogether.
在这十年中,医生们也对高难度手术,如脑叶切除术,产生了兴趣。医生们开始研究通过将特定脑组织完全切除以减轻病痛。


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The tools that allowed for these surgeries were often just as macabre as the procedures they enabled. Consider the sturdy metal drill doctors used to bore two holes in a patient's skull before tissue removal.
用于手术的工具常常与手术本身一样可怕。想想医生们在移除脑组织之前如何用坚硬的金属钻在病人的脑壳上钻两个洞吧!(小编:问你怕未,哈哈~)


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As World War II broke out, surgery again saw great advancement. Doctors could essentially perform the same procedures in the field as they would at a hospital, all thanks to technology that didn't require them to stay rooted in an operating room.
随着第二次世界大战的爆发,手术再次取得了巨大的进步。医生们基本上可以像在医院那样地在战地里进行手术,这一切多亏了先进的技术,让手术不再局限于手术室之内。


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In 1952, doctors performed the first surgery in which they successfully stopped and restarted the heart. It would later form the foundation for modern-day transplants.
1952年,医生们第一次成功地用手术使心脏停跳又使之“重启”,从而为现代移植手术奠定了基础。


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Within a decade, at the height of the Vietnam War, doctors performed the first heart transplant. Unfortunately, healing was still an obstacle. The patient died from pneumonia just 18 days later.
这十年间,在越南战争打得如火如荼的时候,医生们进行了世界上第一例心脏移植手术。不幸的是,术后康复依然是个问题。该名接受心脏移植手术的患者手术18天后就死于肺炎。


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The decade brought loads of technology into the operating room, with doctors manning control stations that looked fit for NASA. Operating rooms became the focal point of any successful hospital.
这十年间,手术室引入了许多技术。有的医生还操控起了手术控制台,控制台看起来先进得都适用于美国航空航天局了。手术室变成了所有成功医院里最受瞩目的焦点。


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Operations that once posed risks of infection, such as wound repair, were routine by the 1970s. But now doctors wanted to go smaller: The decade saw the invention of laparoscopic, or minimally-invasive, surgery.
以前可能带来感染危险的手术,如创伤修复手术,到20世纪70年代已经变得再普通不过了。但此时的医生又想朝精细化发展,于是这十年里人们发明了腹腔镜手术,也称微创手术。


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With minimally-invasive techniques on the rise, surgery entered the mainstream. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw a booming interest in plastic surgery, as people realized operations could be a form of recreation, not just life-preservation.
随着微创技术的发展,手术开始成为主流。20世纪70年代末、80年代初,人们对整形手术的兴趣大增,因为他们认识到手术不仅仅可以维护生命,还可以是一种重塑技术。


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Silicone implants, devised in the early 1980s, especially helped popularize breast augmentation surgery.
20世纪80年代初发明的硅胶植入技术,大大促进了隆胸手术的流行普及。(小编:原来这厮就是胸器)


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As with all innovation, some experimental procedures did not follow the newest techniques. In 1994, for instance, doctors at Russia's Hemopathologic Institute poured ice on patients to prepare for heart surgery in place of anesthesia.
正如所有的革新一样,有些实验性手段并不采用最新的技术。比如,在1994年,俄国血液病理学研究所的医生在为病人准备心脏手术的时候,将冰倒在病人身上来代替麻醉术。(小编:好像很有道理,冷到没知觉?)


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But the progress also transcended human surgeries. In 1996, Bonah, an 18-month-old rare white tiger, underwent an operation to correct a dislocated kneecap. Bonah recovered with flying colors.
外科手术的进步并不局限于在人类身上进行的手术。1996年,一只名叫博纳、18个月大的稀有白虎接受了膝盖骨脱臼矫正手术,并成功康复。


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As America's obesity epidemic began spiraling out of control, the early 21st century saw unprecedented use of laparoscopic surgery to shrink patients' stomachs to fight weight gain.
随着美国“肥胖大流行”情况开始急剧恶化,几近失控,21世纪初出现了史无前例的腹腔镜缩胃减重手术。(小编:作为一名吃货,简直不能忍!)


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Within the last few years, the most cutting edge technologies have started relying less on human involvement and more on robotics. The da Vinci Xi Surgical System, made by Intuitive Surgical, could allow physicians to work remotely on patients from around the world.
在过去几年中,最前沿的技术已开始减少手术对人力参与的依赖性,转而更多地依靠机器人科学。由直觉外科公司研制的达芬奇手术机器人系统使得医生可以通过远程控制机器人来对世界各地的病人进行远程手术。(小编:好高大上有木有!)


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Just recently, in December of 2015, physicians at NYU Langone Medical Center performed the world's first successful face transplant on a firefighter who suffered extreme burns in 2001. More than 100 people worked for 26 hours — a true medical miracle.
就在最近的2015年12月,纽约大学朗格尼医学中心的医生为一位在2001年遭受严重烧伤的消防员进行了脸部移植手术。这是世界上第一例成功的脸部移植手术,100多名医务人员奋战了26个小时,这堪称是真正的医学奇迹。



以前的手术风险高、成功率低,按照“医闹”思维想的话,不知道当时的医生被病人的家属揍过多少次、死过多少回呢?不过好像当时的人们也基本能理解手术有风险这一事实,也没我们现在这么暴躁吧?现在的医疗技术越来越先进,手术风险也越来越低,我觉得能生活在这个年代已经很幸运啦,你说是不是?但是风险越来越低并不代表不存在风险,不管手术结果如何,当医生们尽力了我们应该对他们表示感谢和理解,你说呢?


图文来源:Business Insider   
作者:Chris Weller   
翻译:静静 & 丫米

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童洪飞 发表于 2017-5-18 23:51:46 | 显示全部楼层
physician 一般情况指的是内科医生。
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